Milk is a liquid color that is a product of mammalian mammary glands. It is used in the diet of young animals at an early age as well as in human nutrition. Human milk differs from animal milk in the content of lactose. Human milk is richer in lactose than animal milk. Lactose is the primary sugar in milk.
The largest percentage in the composition of milk is water (87%), while the rest is dry matter. The percentage of dry matter content in milk varies depending on the type of mammal from which we get milk.
Cow’s milk is most often used in the human diet. Goat’s milk is used in underdeveloped countries, especially in Africa.
The milk is white, while depending on the amount of fat, there are shades of other colors that show the degree of presence of fat in the milk (if there are blue shades in the milk, it means that the milk fat has been removed from the milk). Milk is divided into whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed. In the case of skimmed milk, all the fat was removed and the subsequent return resulted in semi-skimmed milk.
Apart from animal milk, soy milk and coconut milk are increasingly used today. Even new research has led to the fact that some varieties of plants can produce quality healthy milk.
Milk is widely used in human and animal nutrition, especially in the postpartum period. Babies get all the necessary substances through breast milk to strengthen and nourish the body. Although some scientific research has tried to prove that milk is unhealthy due to some of its ingredients, it is still used in large quantities today.
In addition to baby food, milk is used in cooking and in the preparation of refreshing drinks and desserts.
One glass of cow’s milk will satisfy 30% of the body’s need for calcium.It is also an excellent source of protein.
Cow’s milk is rich in vitamin D, which the human body needs to absorb calcium. It contains both potassium and phosphorus.
Nutritional values of cow’s milk: 1 cup of whole cow’s milk contains
Calories 147, Total fat 8.1g, Cholesterol 24mg, Carbohydrates 19.9g, Protein 7.9g, Calcium 276.1mg (30% of RDI), Potassium 349mg (10% od RDI).
Vitamins and minerals: Vit.A 6% of RDI, Vit.C 4% of RDI, Vit.D 25% of RDI, Vit.B1 3% of RDI, Vit.B2 12% of RDI, Vit.B12 18% of RDI, Mg 3% of RDI.
Goat milk is rarely consumed. It has a slightly sweet taste, but some people have an unpleasant odor.
Is contains more calcium than cow’s milk and more tryptophan – an essential fatty acid that helps the body to break down protein. Also, it contains higher level of lactose than cow’s milk and higher level of saturated fatty acid.
Nutritional values of goat’s milk: 1 cup of goat’s milk contains
Calories 169, Total fat 10g, Cholesterol 27mg, Carbohydrates 11g,Sugar 11g, Protein 9g, Calcium 327.4mg (32.7% of RDI), Potassium 498.4mg (14% od RDI).
Vitamins and minerals: Vit.A 9% of RDI, Vit.C 5% of RDI
Soy milk is a popular alternative to cow’s milk. It made from soybeans that are mixed with water and mixed until a white mixture is obtained.
It is a rich source of protein and does not contain saturated fatty acid.
Soy proteins can interfere with the absorption of minerals, especially iron. It is not particularly rich in calcium.
Nutritional values of soy milk: 1 cup of soy milk contains
Calories 100, Total fat 4g, Carbohydrates 8g, Dietary fiber 1g, Sugar 6g, Protein 7g, Calcium 300mg (25% of RDI), Potassium 498mg (14% od RDI).
Vitamins and minerals: Vit.A 10% of RDI, Vit.D 57% of RDI, Vit.B2 20% of RDI, Iron 1% of RDI, Mg 9% of RDI.
Almond milk is made by soaking almonds wich are than mixed, after the obtained milk is filtered.
It is an excellent source of calcium and it does not contain a lot of calories and saturared fatty acid. Also, it is natural source of vitamin E.
Nutritional values of almond milk: 1 cup of almond milk contains
Calories 60, Total fat 2.5g, Carbohydrates 8g, Dietary fiber 1g, Protein 1g, Calcium 180mg (20% of RDI).
Vitamins and minerals: Vit.A 25% of RDI, Vit.D 25% of RDI, Vit.E 50% of RDI, Iron 2% of RDI, Mg 4% of RDI.
Commercial rice milk is typically manufactured using brown rice. Rice milk is made commercially by pressing the rice through a grinding mill, followed by filtration and blending in water.
Rice milk does not contain saturated fatty acid and 1 to 2 g of unsaturated fatty acid per cup. It is not as rich in protein as cow’s milk but contains twise as many carbohydrates as cow’s milk.
Nutritional values of rice milk: 1 cup of rice milk contains
Calories 120, Total fat 2g, Carbohydrates 24.8g, Protein 0.4g, Calcium 180mg (20% of RDI).
Vitamins and minerals: Vit.C 2% of RDI, Iron 1% of RDI.
Hemp milk colud be one of the healthiest alternative verisions of cow’s milk. It is completely legal and made from hemp seeds that do not contain THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), a psychoactive ingridient found in hemp.
It has a high level of calcium and phosphorus, even more than cow’s milk. Hemp milk contains alpha linoleic acid, wich belong to the gropu of omega 3 fatty acid.
However, it has a more intense taste than soy and rice milk, so you may not like it.
Nutritional values of hemp milk: 1 cup of hemp milk contains
Calories 110, Total fat 7g, Carbohydrates 7g, Dietary fiber 1g, Protein 5g, Calcium 20mg (2% of RDI).
Vitamins and minerals: Iron 20% of RDI
Oat milk is great because does not contain saturated fatty acid.
It is contains high level of carbohydrates and twice less protein than cow’s milk.
Oat milk has a mild taste, but still there is a possibility that you do not like it.
Nutritional values of oat milk: 1 cup of oat milk contains
Calories 130, Total fat 2.5g, Carbohydrates 24g, Dietary fiber 2g, Sugars 19g, Protein 4g.
Coconut milk is high in calories and does not contian a lot of calcium and protein.
Coconut meat and juice give the milk a creamy and rich taste. But some people do not like the intense and sweet taste of coconut milk.
Calories 467, Total fat 50.5g, Carbohydrates 6.6g, Protein 4.8g, Calcium 42.7mg (4% of RDI), Potassium 521.4mg (14% of RDI).
Vitamins and minerals: Vit.C 4% of RDI, Vit.B1 3% of RDI, Vit.B3 7% of RDI, Folic acid 8% of RDI, Mg 26% of RDI, Phosphorus 22% of RDI, Zinc 8% of RDI, Copper 25% of RDI and Manganese 87% of RDI.